Piercings have a long history almost as long as humanity itself. The oldest mummified remains ever discovered were sporting earrings, attesting to the existence of the practice more than 5,000 years ago. The oldest mummified remains ever discovered were sporting earrings, attesting to the existence of the practice more than 5,000 years ago.
The lips (labium, from Latin labrum “lip“) are soft, movable, and serve as the opening for food intake and in the articulation of sound and speech. The upper and lower lips are referred to as the “Labium superius oris” and “Labium inferius oris”, respectively. The juncture where the lips meet the surrounding skin of the mouth area is the vermilion border, and the typically reddish area within the borders is called the vermilion zone.
Hair is a protein filament that grows from follicles found in the dermis, or skin. Hair is one of the defining characteristics of mammals. The human body, apart from areas of glabrous skin, is covered in follicles which produce thick terminal and fine vellus hair. Most common interest in hair is focused on hair growth, hair types, and hair care, but hair is also an important biomaterial primarily composed of protein, notably alpha-keratin. Attitudes towards different hair, such as hairstyles and hair removal, vary widely across different cultures and historical periods, but it is often used to indicate a person’s personal beliefs or social position, such as their age, sex, or religion. The study of hair is part of trichology, a branch of dermatology. The cross-section of a hair can be divided into three zones: the medulla (innermost zone), the cortex (middle zone), and the cuticle (outermost zone). The strength and flexibility of a hair are determined by its cross-sectional shape. The quality and quantity of the cross-linkages between the alpha-keratin molecules determine whether the hair will be strong or weak. Many animals have developed specialized hairs that serve particular functions. These
Surgery is a medical or dental specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a person to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function, appearance, or to repair unwanted ruptured areas. The act of performing surgery may be called a “surgical procedure”, “operation”, or simply “surgery“. In this context, the verb “operate” means to perform surgery. The adjective “surgical” means pertaining to surgery; e.g. surgical instruments or surgical nurse. The patient or subject on which the surgery is performed can be a person or an animal. A surgeon is a person who practices surgery and an assistant is a person who practices surgical assistance. A surgical team is made up of surgeon, surgeon’s assistant, anesthesia provider, circulating nurse and surgical technologist. Surgery usually spans minutes to hours, but it is typically not an ongoing or periodic type of treatment. The term “surgery” can also refer to the place where surgery is performed, or simply the office of a physician, dentist, or veterinarian. Surgery has become a technology-dependent branch of medicine in recent times. With the trend towards evidence-based medicine, it has become clear that there